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Early descriptions of pagi and counties in this area include Altfrid's Vita S.Liudgeri, which records that "in gente Fresonum ab orientali parte fluminis Labeki" there were five pagi "Hugmerchi, Hunusga, Fivilga, Emisga, Federitga" and one island "Bant".From the early 9th century, the territory of the country which is today known as The Netherlands was part of Frisia, which covered the whole coastal area from southern Denmark in the east to Flanders in the west."Frisia" should be distinguished from "Friesland", which is the current name of the northern province of The Netherlands.This confusion may be due to the lack of definitive names for the Frisian pagi, as many alternate names for the same areas can be identified in the primary sources.What is clear is that considerable doubt persists about these early medieval territorial divisions in The Netherlands and their precise geographical demarcations.The area constituted a convenient staging post from which to launch raids on Frankish territory further to the south.
The 839 text implies that the four named counties were vassals of the duchy of Frisia.The name "Dirk", used by seven counts of Holland, also suggests a Saxon connection in its Latin form "Theodericus", a name which was closely connected with the Saxon paternal ancestors of Heinrich I King of Germany.Other names of 9th and 10th century northern Lotharingian nobility also suggest a Danish origin, notably Reginar (the name of several comtes de Hainaut, see the document HAINAUT)."Ostfriesland" refers to a small region in north-west Germany, while "West-Friesland" is applied to the eastern part of the present-day Dutch province of Noord-Holland.After 843, the territory of the future Netherlands became the northernmost part of the kingdom of Lotharingia, created under the treaty of Verdun which finally settled the lengthy disputes between the sons of Emperor Louis I.